Wilderness survival – Issues of direction


Looking at the following wind flower we saw four main directions:
1. East or East abbreviated E.
2. West or West stands W.
3. South or South stands S.
4. North or North abbreviated N.
(We also use fleur-de-lis to just north instead of the letter N).
Four extra guide is:
1. Northeast – abbreviated as NE.
2. Southeast – abbreviated as SE.
3. Northwest – abbreviated as NW.
4. Southwest – abbreviated as SW.

In addition we also have 8 user collateral is:

1. North northeast (NNE)
2. East northeast (ENE)
3. East southeast (ESE)
4. South southeast (SSE)
5. South southwest (SSW)
6. West southwest (SWW)
7. West northwest (WSW)
8. North northwest (NNW).

Thus, we have four main directions – 4 way and 8 way bladder side (and very small 16 user side).


There are many ways to find direction. Following is the normal way, easy to use.
1. By solar:
This is the most simple way that everyone knows, especially in the tropics, the sun much.
In the morning, the sun rises in the east and sets in the west afternoon. If you stand outstretched arms, his right hand pointing east, west left hand only, the first of the north, behind the south.
But you need to note is noon, the sun slightly south. Thus, it is about 9-10 am, the sun in the southeast. Approximately 15-16 pm, in the southwest.
2. The clock and the sun:
a) Northern Hemisphere:
Use a small rod sizes (toothpick), plug perpendicular to the ground, sticks will give a shadow. I set the clock so that the shadow of overlap toothpick Sewing hours.
Bisector of the corner by the 12 hour hand and gives the south, so the opposite is north.
b) Southern Hemisphere:
You rotate the clock so that the ball sticks in number 12. Road overlap bisector of the corner by the 12 hour hand and will give us north. Thus, the opposite direction is south.
3. With sticks and sun.
Method 1:
Also known as Owendoff method. Use a stick about 90 cm long straight, perpendicular to the ground plug. I marked the beginning of bat ball, first called point A.
After about 15 minutes, the ball sticks to move through other place, we again mark the ball clubhead Monday, called point B. Connect points A and B again, we have a straight line only east-west direction (point A just west of, and point B just east). And of course, the southbound Northern perpendicular east-west direction.
Method 2:
This method longer than a few hours one method but quite accurate.
– Use a long straight stick about a meter, plug perpendicular to the ground, before noon.
– Draw an arc of a circle from point A with the original center of the stick.
– Midday, stick ball shrinks, but the lunch and the ball will hit the circle sticks, we mark that point called Point B.
– Divide the line AB into two equal parts. Ke foot sticks straight line from passing between segments AB, will give North.
4. By Star.
At night you can use the stars for navigation. There are many stars and constellations to find direction, but the easiest is the following constellation:
a) North Star:
To find the North Star, first of all, you look to get Little Dipper Fine.

Big Bear spoon like large, 7-star, the first star you get 2 of the spoon, which lasted an imaginary line segment by 5 times the distance of 2 stars, you’ll see a house They sparkle, visible, which is the North Star.
Also can find the North Star from satellite constellation Ursa Minor. This constellation has 7 star, but smaller than the Big Dipper. Last star of Little Dipper’s tail is the North Star.

b) Why Liep households (Orion)
Also called Star Cay, Three Star, Catch the Spirit, Soldiers ….
Sign Liep households shaped a sword bearer at the waist (Waist is three bright stars arranged in rows, 3 star is slightly translucent sword).

If you draw a straight line from the sword go through the star Capella (star Thien Duong) is toward the North Pole.
This constellation is easy to identify the sky under Vietnam from dusk till November this year in May the following year.
c) Sign Southern Cross (Holy Cross).
Also known as Nam Tao, the Southern Cross. 4 stars should form a Tahp. Sao Tam Thap in between Sagittarius and Thien boats, are the stars bright and clear, so the constellation South Tahp easy identification.
In Antarctica, without any star located Southernmost point as the North Star at the North Pole, so it is only based on the constellations revolve around the South Pole point for orientation, which is why Southern Cross constellation easily recognized most.
I called the diagonal length of the segment AB stars South Cross. The AB section that you pull out 4 times a half long, to an imaginary point. I imagine that for points south geography. In Vietnam, we can only see stars Southern Cross from nightfall during May to July each year.
5. By the moon.
– Trang Shanghai Week: (from 1st to 10th lunar). But only visible from the 4th lunar moon. Waxing Crescent, bicuspid turning eastward.
– Trang Trung Week: (from 20 to 29-30 lunar calendar). But all clearly see the moon from lunar 25. Waxing Crescent, bicuspid turning westward.
Additionally, you can map an imaginary line passing through the tip of the moon two straight to the ground, the contact points that are southbound.
6. With the wind.
Vietnam we are in the “Asia monsoon” with two main types of wind. Northeast monsoon and southwest monsoon.
– Northeast monsoon activity lasts from October until April this year after year, blowing from the northeast to the southwest.
– Southwest monsoon lasts from May to October each year, blowing from the Southwest to the Northeast.
For wind blowing, you look at the tree, grass, flag …
– Holding less dust, waste paper … dropdown see which direction the wind carried away.
– Wipe the finger, about 10 seconds’ mouths, retrieved holdup, if the cold finger is the wind blowing from that direction.
7. By moss.
Encounter bad weather, could not see the sun, moon, stars … and no geographical, you can estimate the direction by looking at the trunk. Which side is north humid lot (because the sun does not go through this guide). Since then you deduce the other direction.

How to find precise directions easily and quickly is to use area.
There are many types of large and small geographical areas, simple, sophisticated, diverse, but its possible division into two categories: mobile metal and type of mobile.


This type has a mobile magnetic needle, this needle rotating on an axis always points north and south. This type has two kinds.
1. Type death cap, with record or not record high level.
2. Type can swivel by hand, on a rotation that has divided the slot 360 may have closed, have arrows are looking or “pivot move”.
Method using geographical areas combined with map
– Position the map
– Set the route geographical move on the map (H1)
– Turn round the locality so that red letter N at the beginning of the magnetic needle (H2).
– Hold the locality on hand, twirl and how the province’s red head magnetic needle located on the N (North = North)
– Between the place, closed under direction arrows to move to define goals will come (H3).
Find a user already knows some degree.
– Hold the geographical balance on hand, putting in front.
– Set the number of already know is right arrows as “pivot move”.
– Turning the needle red star located on the N (North), which is parallel to the orientation of bar.
– Looking towards “axis movement” to find the target.
Determining the level of instruction.
– Hold the geographical balance on the hand put in front.
– Turn the shaft to move toward need identified.
– Screw the lid so that the N locality situated right on top of the red cell metallic magnetism.
– Recognition of the degrees appear immediately on the “axis of movement”.


Typical of this type is “military locality”. Is a very sophisticated instruments, precision and ease of use. Include the following components:
1. Khoen Council: Used to insert the thumb, holding area when aiming and cover key area.
2. Cap the area: There is a rectangular slot, between a small wire called “just aiming” to aim daytime. The two ends are aimed towards two phosphor dots to target night. The lid is attached to the body by a hinge locality.
3. The province is composed of two glass –
– First hand: rotation, and has 120 steps (each rung by 3 degrees). On the glass there is a bar and a phosphorescent dots together form a 45-degree angle, the angle of the shaft area.
– On Monday: Fixed, with a dark stripe on the lid standard geographical direction.
4. The number of mobile engraving glass: Attached to a bar magnet and rotate about an axis. On it, there are two dials.
– Outer: Black, only elongation. There elongation 6400.
– Circle: Red, just degrees. There are 360 ​​degrees.
On the mobile side of this glass with the letters E (East = East), W (West = West). And a phosphorescent triangle just to the north or elongation or 360 6400.
5. Section closed: Includes slots closed and magnifier.
6. Measure: Located outside the left edge of the area when open, used for the maps of 1/2500.
Round cell type
Using military locality.
– Open and press downward brass eyelets.
– Open the cover and bent perpendicular to the surface area.
– Opens Sightseeing parts above the 45 degree oblique area.
– Pass the right hand thumb through brass eyelets.
– The index finger relative to hug around the area, the three remaining fingers support the province itself.
– The left hand and raising his right hand hug, elbows shoulder height.
– Putting locality close your eyes, take the line of sight.
To find some degree or elongation of a user.
Putting the province to target an imaginary line from the last slot only intended aim and direction to the target. Glanced through the magnifier and read or elongation of the underlying black baseline.

To find the manual that corresponds to some degree or elongation has said.
Have you adjusted according to the number of geographical areas or elongation was for, how the number of degrees or elongation which is below the standard black bar. Keep posted on the eye like that then, just get line of sight just check the level and elongation.
Drag an imaginary line from the slot past targeted only intended for anything to make the target or not. If so, you noted that the hook point. If no or too far away, hard to define, you find nearby overtones.
As well as finding directions and other areas have many other uses such as:
– Replace the protractor.
– Orientation map.
– Measure the sensory way between two points outside the terrain and on the map.
– Who the sense squares on the map.
– Bending angle while moving.
– Going in one direction during the day.
– Going in one direction at night.
– Derogation …
– ………………


Today, it has marketed the device type global positioning by plasma very compact. Help for explorers, adventure, exploration, travel … know their exact position on the planet via satellite. If with this, we hardly lost, though in the jungle, the ocean or the desert.
Before leaving the parking place, you click on the device, remember parking is “MY CAR”. Then you just hit the road. In the evening, when you stop camping, enter into the memory of the GPS position is camp “LOCATION 1”. The next day you leave the campsite and continue picnic. In the afternoon, you want to return to camp – you touch the screen displays “LOCATION 1” and shifting the device until the display direction of “Position 1”. Just go in that direction, you will about Campsite. The next day, you want to return your car, you press the “MY CAR”. GPS will guide you to the direct sense of his car.
COMPASS SILVA GPS device can memorize 79 position. In addition, the devices are used for many different functions.


Having received the direction that we need to move, then you must know how to keep the right direction to avoid bias.
With no locality
If you do not know the method, then every a delay, you have to take the climb to check again, otherwise it will get lost. So you are looking for a standard object or a reference direction to go to.
– If plants tremendous preparation or visible (such as mountain, tree between the gaps …) is quite easy, you just aimed for that goes to.
– Comparison of the downwind angle to the direction of movement, how to keep from being skewed (note that when the wind picks)
– If it is night, trying to find the North Star and South Star Cao to do benchmarking, and always keep the correct angle between the benchmark and the direction of travel.
– If in the forest, you target an imaginary line through some standard objects visible (tree, stone aggregate, termite mound …). We call our closest animal is prepared to claim 1, followed by 2 points … we go straight to point 1, and from point 1 we closed following a straight line passing through point 2, (now it is Point 1) to something other standards … and on and on like that, we keep driving directions.

When a locality
If you need to know which direction to go, the province used to align your direction and choices to a certain benchmark most visible on the path to the destination. After arriving, the locality would you use to target the next point. Doing so, whether we can go ders to avoid obstacles in the woods, we still keep the right direction.

On the way to move towards the predestined, if encountered great obstacles (marshes, hills, winding rivers, …) that you can not or do not want to pass, but still keep the right direction, you method can be used to count steps and corner brake to keep the direction. When breaking angle, depending on the obstacles, you can break right angle or reverse angle triangles balanced, and to count steps for calculating distance.

Bending angles

– For a right-angle turn right, take the direction going value plus 90 °. If values ​​greater than 270 ° direction at minus 270 °.
– For a right-angle turn left, take direction going value minus 90 °. If the value is less than 90 ° direction, the 270 ° plus.
We are moving toward 30 ° the encounter of a hill:
– The first time, we turn to a right angle: 30 ° + 90 ° = 120 °. Move this new direction (120 °), we counted 900 steps sometimes (we call this segment as AB).
– The second time, we left a square corner: Apply the rules, we are going to be 120 ° direction – 90 ° = 30 °. Moving in this direction until past the obstacle (we call this segment as BC).
– Last Tuesday, we left a square corner: Apply rules are going to bend the direction of 30 ° (less than 90 °) thus: 30 ° + 270 ° = 300 °. Moving in this direction, we counted 900 steps to return double, (we call this segment as CDs. Thus AB = CD).
– Fourth, we have a right-angle turn: Apply rules that we are going towards 300 ° (270 ° larger) thus: 300 ° – 270 ° = 30 °. So we came back the original direction.
Turn the corner triangles weight
People often use the formula: first turn angle 45 °, 90 ° angle for the second time, and again in the beginning.
Cam turns 45 °:
– Turn left: Get directions except for the value of 45 °. If the value is less than 45 ° direction, the 315 ° plus.
– Turn right: Get directions plus the value of 45 °. If the value is greater than 315 ° to 315 ° minus.
We are moving toward 90 °, then met a lake.
– First time: turn left 45 degrees. We have: 90 ° – 45 ° = 45 °. We count the steps and go towards this until past the barrier.
– Second: turn right 90 degrees. We have 45 ° + 90 ° = 135 °. We count returned by the step by step we have the first turn.
– The third time we automatically turn toward old = 90 °.

Method sensory degeneration (or the inverse sense) is the opposite feeling the sense of progress. In other words the two methods on how different senses half circle (ie, 3200 or 180 ° elongation). Therefore, we have the following relation:
– The sense of progress + 3200 = acute sense elongation quit
– The sense of progress + 180 ° = the sense to quit
– If the sensory smaller forward or 180 ° elongation 3200, we added 3,200 elongation and 180 °.
– If the larger sense of progress or 180 ° elongation 3200, we subtract 3200 elongation or 180 °.
– The sense of progress as 4600 elongation.
– The sensory degeneration will be: 4600 – 3200 = 1400 elongation
– The sense of progress is 80 °
– The sensory degeneration will be: 80 ° + 180 ° = 260 °.

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