Wilderness survival – Reading and using a map

★ BRAND ESTIMATE TERRAIN

The outside terrain scenery such as rivers, streams, streets, houses, railways, roads … are recorded on the map are not in the picture that equals sign. Estimated effects are not drawn to scale, but respect the direction and position. All military map are approximate mark the note at the bottom, if you use more, we’ll know.
There are 5 types of agreements as:
1. Roads: Railways, asphalt, dirt roads, trail.
2. Sea Route: Rivers, streams, ditches, canals ….
3. Herbs: dense forests, woodlands, plantations …
4. Architecture: Buildings, streets, villages, ramparts, ruins, airport …
5. Miscellaneous: boundaries, contour …
COLORS OF AGREEMENTS ★ BRAND
1. Red: Only freeway, asphalt, town …
2. Blue: Only water or things of water (rivers, sea …)
3. The color green – (dark or light): Only herbs, woods.
4. Black: Only villages, houses, buildings.
5. Brown: The contour, that land …
★ scales
The rate is the ratio of map distance measured two points on a map to the real gap out terrain.

Ratio = Distance 2 points on the map / Distance 2 points outside terrain

Example: A distance from A to B 500 meters long. You just 20mm mapped. So you drew the line AB at the rate of 20 / 500,000 or 1 / 25,000.
There are two types of ratio: Ratio and Proportion of painting.
1. Percentage: The percentage is written in a fraction, the numerator always is the number one (1) and the denominator is the number of legs.
For example: 1 / 50,000
Rate 1 / 50,000 means a glass (mm) on the map is equal to 50,000 ly (mm) in outside terrain.
– Calculate the distance on the map.
We call:
T = percentage of map
K = Distance outer terrain
k = Distance on map
We have the formula:
k = K / T
Example: We know the distance (K) outside terrain is 3,500 meters (ie 3.500.000mm). If using a map scale of 1 / 25,000 have:
K = 350.000mm = 140mm. So k = 140mm
T = 25,000
Thus: looking for distance (k) on the map, we take distance (K) outside the terrain, divided by the scale of the map (T).

– Calculate the distance beyond the terrain:

We use the formula:
K = k x T
Example: We know the distance on the map is 140mm. If using a map scale of 1 / 25,000 of us have:
(K) = 140mm x (T) = 25000 => (K) = 3,500,000 mm.
So K = 3,500,000 mm or 3,500 meters.
Thus: To find the distance (K) outside the terrain, we take the distance (k) on the map multiplied by the ratio (T).
★ Ratio.
Rate painting a picture like the size, printed on the map, help us figure out the distance on the map as a distance outside the terrain, without applying the formula rate number.
The rate may be in size painting West (metre) or in miles (mile = 1,609) or by code (yard = 0.9144).
We often use bleach to make the measurement unit in proportion painting.
When used, we get zero (0) as standard, the right size, we see record 1000m, 2000m … It means such a distance on the map is equal to 1000 or 2000 meters outside terrain. Left with 1000m record is divided into 10 parts, so each part corresponding terrain 100 meters apart.
★ THE NORTH DIRECTION
3 North:
1. Northward From
2. To the north Geography
3. The box Northward
1. From the north (Magnetic North)
As the magnetic needle north of the province. Kim locality is situated north-south magnetic axis of the Earth which is not in accordance with the geographical meridian.
North Peak From (Magnetic North = MAN) is not located on the northern tip of Geography (ie earth axis), which is located on Bathurst Island, Northern Canada. Magnetic North can vary from 30 ° West to 50 ° East in Alaska in Greenland. But it does not spread on Route Dong Giac (Agonic Line), because the peak of the North from the North peak and Geography are located on this route.
★ THE NORTH FROM THE DIFFERENCE AND NORTHERN geography
Northbound from changing over time. On the map, the north this is symbolized by a line, beginning with Arrow 1 barb.
2. To the north Geographic (True North)
As the Earth’s north, longitude determined by the South Arctic. Northbound Geography is represented by a straight line, with a star on 5 Wing.
3. To the north squares (Grid North)
Also known as the north map, because it is only on the map, according to the UTM projection (Universal Transverse Mercator). Northbound Square: is defined by the axis of Tung The grid in the map. To the north of this is represented by a straight line, over which the two letters GN or Y.
★ THE CHARITY.
India Since God is the shifting of Magnetic North. Northbound from shifting during limited annual 23 ° 30 ‘East and 23 ° 30’ West. The shift will be very slow, each year only 2 minutes (2 ‘). So to round a shifting cycle, it takes from 7 to 8 centuries.
If Northward From lies to the right of the north Square: it might be called “Little India From Heaven East».
If Northward From along the left side of the north is at Square, we call it the “Little India From Heaven West»
Elementary Grade Calculation From Heaven.
To figure Elementary Grade From God, we must have three elements.
1. In printed map and in use.
2. Treatment of High Charity, in print.
3. The charity translated into the East or the West.
Example:
1. In print map 1955 – In use in 1955.
2. Treatment of charity in print = 1 ° East.
3. Little India From Heaven translated into the East.

So the five-year gap between print and in use are:
1995 – 1955 = 40 years.
The Heaven From value of 40 years is:
40 ‘x 2’ (as the shifting of 1 year) = 80 ‘or 1 ° 20’.
So: Little India From Heaven of 1995 was:
1 ° + 1 ° 20 ‘- 2 ° 20’ East.
Application: Little India From Heaven used to calculate coordinates for accurately.
★ SYSTEM SHOWING ON MAP
The Earth is a sphere, but to draw a map, one must projection of the Earth’s shape into a cylinder and cone, in a certain way, so that when unrolled, would have the plane.
There are two common screening methods.
1. Projection methods U.T.M. (Universal Transverse Mercator).
Projection U.T.M. is applied to the region from 80 ° N latitude to 80 ° south latitude.
Earth is projected onto a vertical tubular shaft parallel to the axis of the earth. The disadvantage of this method is growing toward the poles.
Example: On a map UTM. Land of Greenland appears larger than South America, while real, larger American South Greenland 9 times.
SYSTEM BOX ★ U.T.M.
From latitude 80 ° S to 80 ° N, the earth is divided into 60 zones (vertical) and 20 strip (horizontally).
a) All: All 6 ° or 666km wide, longitude, are numbered from 1 to 60, starting from 180 ° meridian going East.
b) Range: Wide range 8 ° or 888km, latitude, named by an alphabet in order from south to north, starting from C to X (omit the letters A, B, I, O, Y. )
All times and intersecting strips of grid areas named by numbers and letters.
– The name of the zone.
– Sample order is the name of the band.
Example: Country Vietnam in the grid brings digits: 47Q – 48R – 48Q – 49Q – 48P – 49P.
In the picture, you see Saigon is located in grid 48P – Hue is 48Q – Phan Thiet 49P …
Each square of the image width is 6 ° or 666km, vertical is 8 ° or 888km.
★ EDGE BOX 100 kilometers (KM).
Every grid area (zone and permissive) was divided into squares, each edge 100 kilometers.
Horizontally and vertically of these squares are named with a letter.
Each square 100 kilometers edge, carries two letters, one letter vertically, and one horizontally alphabet. When writing, you write vertically (to the left) before, horizontally (located below) later.
★ BOX COMPETITION 1 kilometer (KM)
As most small box in the map with scale of 1 / 12,500. 1 / 25000-1 / 50000-1 / 100,000. Is made up of straight lines parallel to the meridian and parallel. This is the axis «Tung level» and «Abscissa» that we used to find the exact coordinates on the map table.
★ COORDINATES
Coordinates a point on the map, is located by a sequence of degrees and Heng Tung at which point it attached.
To find the coordinates (X) on the map. We divide Tung, and Abscissa axis (of edge 1 kilometer square, which coordinates looking) each axis into 10 equal portions.
1. I read the index of Tung Street is located to the left of point coordinates looking.
2. Work out how many points the coordinates occupied part of the box 10, from left to right.
Example: Tung Street carries the number 63, and the location coordinates looking occupy squares 7/10. I read 673. This is the first constellation.
3. Next, we read of the index lies below the road Hengfeng of point coordinates looking.
4. Work out how many points the coordinates occupied part of the square 10, calculated from the bottom up.
Example: Heng Road No. 25 and the bearing point coordinates looking occupies 4/10 of the square. I read is 254. This is the constellation of later.
Thus: X coordinate on the map is 637 254.
Note: When do we have to read the index of the previous Tung and Abscissa axis indices after.
Full UTM coordinates.
Coordinates 6 numbers on, just tell us its position on a square. Want a full coordinates to let us know where it is located somewhere on earth, we must have the following elements:
1. Symbols grid region (zone and permissive) TD: 48P …
2. The Symbol box 100 kilometers away. TD: YS – CP …
3. The degrees and Heng Tung of squares of 1 kilometer.
4. The section 10 of the coordinates of one kilometer square.
Example: A full coordinates
48P – YS – 637 254.
UTM Coordinates simple
Coordinates UTM coordinates simply include:
1. Symbols of 100 kilometers square edges.
2. Indicator of the Tung Heng degrees and 1 kilometer square.
3. The coordinates of the 10 squares within 1 kilometer.
Example: YS. 637 254.
Note:
On the map it can indicate signs of grid areas (zones and saliva), the symbol of 100 square kilometers, together with instructions how to write a complete UTM coordinates.

★ FORMS OF COORDINATES
There are 4 types of coordinates.
1. Type 4 number (coordinates Ki-Lot-meters = 1000 meters)
2. Type 6 number (coordinates approximately 100 meters)
3. Type 8 numbers (coordinates with a distance of 10 meters)
4. Type 10 number (coordinates a distance of 1 meter)

Type 4 is too general, not exact, so people often use some type 6 as mentioned above. Were there 8 or 10 of the few correct, then one should use to measure “specified location”.

★ drug INDICATIONS POINT
As a reverse L-shaped feet, on which the measurements cuea 4 types of 1 / 150000-1 / 100000-1 / 50,000 and 1 / 25,000 to use that corresponded to the map that we have. Want to use size “specified location”, first of all, we find the box containing the coordinates looking.
– Set dimensions «specified point ‘to the lower edge of identical size on the bottom door Hengfeng axis square.
– Align your feet «specified point» the lower edge of the road until the Hengfeng coordinate points located on the vertical edges of the ruler is stopped.
– Read the index size was found on the spot.
Rulers «assign points» gives us the exact coordinates to each meter (that coordinates 10 numbers).

★ Contour
The altitude of a point is the height of that compared to the average sea level (between high tide and low tide)
Contour lines are lines drawn on a map connecting points of equal elevation on that ring, it scored high figures indicate that it brings.

The contour:
There are 4 types of contour.
1. Contour Key: Be bold strokes and usually brings some major record high.
2. Contour accessories: As the round is drawn between two contour main, smaller features, often do not carry number.
3. Contour supplementary: As the contour drawn by the sharp discontinuity, so that only the altitude has not been pinpointed.
4. Contour valley: There are short brick shape and is numbered comb descending from outside to inside. These are low-lying so as pit, crater …

★ THE ROAD TO INDICATE
Contour Central Region – (four discs): If an lowlands (it is also called «basin»), the contour of the comb-shaped.
★ ORIENTATION MAP
Orientation Bando is how to set identical directions on the map with the directions on the terrain outside.
There are many ways oriented map.
1. In localities often:
Set locality on the map. Rotate map so that the needle is parallel to the axis of the map Tung.
2. The military province:
Place the left edge of the area (section measure) to coincide with the axis of the map Tung and keep the area does not move. Rotate the map until the magnetic needle (with the triangle at the top) parallel to the north from the notes on the map.
3. The terrain detail:
This is a case of you do not have a map in hand. Based on the direction of the outside terrain details such as roads, rivers, mountains, buildings … or the direction of the sun, moon and stars … .to determine the direction that puts maps with detailed ph2u more on that.
Example: We have the first position is the top of a hill. Position 2 is the foot of a mountain. You rotate the map how to make detailed directions on a map with detailed directions coincide outside terrain.
★ DETERMINATION OF VERTICAL

Is how to know where we stand on the map. Or define a point on the map corresponds to a point outside the terrain.
There are many methods to determine the stand point but the following method is simple and easy.

1. Stand at the benchmark of terrain:
Find and stood right in a special benchmarking of terrain that you can find easily on the map as: crossroads, bridges, pagodas top … ie have confirmed their stand point.
2. The method of estimating distance
Find a special external benchmarking terrain that can be found on the map (as Figure 1). Estimate the distance from the point of view that the standard way we are. Calculate the percentage, we stand point on the map.
3. Method cut path
You stand on a road and try to find a visible external benchmarking terrain as well as in the map. Using the sensory measurement locality from where you stand to benchmark it. After orientation map, you pull a straight-line method that sense, benchmarking and cross the road. The intersection of the road and the feeling that your stand point.
4. Method of assignment reporter.
Using this method, you must be based at least on two benchmarks of the terrain, you turn to follow the following process.
– Orientation maps
– Use the visual province each benchmark measure of terrain.
– Set up geographical maps, geographical rotation correctly found visual medium.
– Draw a straight line in the sense that, first cut the benchmark.
– How does the benchmarking Monday.
– Two lines of sight will intersect at a point on the map, the intersection that your stops.
Note:
Want more precisely, you find a reference point Tuesday, if the sense of this benchmark go through the intersection of the two methods above are feeling exactly. If forming a triangle with each side less than 2 mm, the center of the triangle that is the point stands.
★ FABRICATION OF A GEOGRAPHICAL

When you are in the strange place and you do not have the province, if there is a few things in hand, you can build a simple geographical areas as follows.
First, you need to create a needle or a piece of magnetic steel (please note: the new steel is magnetised, while iron or other metals are nonmagnetic).

For the infection from needles or pieces of steel, you do one of the following methods:
Asian. Select a needle or a piece of steel with appropriate shapes then use a magnet to rub in one direction (do not rub to rub back and forth), after a time, the needle or piece of steel will magnetised. Without the magnet, you can use the screwdriver (Tourne-vis), multifunction pocket knife … things are usually available a magnetic bearing slightly.
b. Get a power cord (also insulated shells) into a spring coil around a needle for neat and well arranged. Plucking shells in both ends, and the first one connected to two batteries within minutes, bring the magnetic needle.
c. Using an old razor blade or a piece of thin steel and carefully rub on hand one way or the hair, razor or piece of steel to slightly magnetised.
When you’ve got a needle or magnetic steel pieces before, then things will become simpler.
– Have you had attached magnetised needle in a small zooplankton such as cotton wick, dry leaves, light wood … then float on water. Two needle will automatically rotate toward the South.
– Can you float a magnetised needle was sticky oil (by rubbing against nose or rub into your hair) and dropped softly to the surface, the needle will float without the brace.
– Hanging or dangling pieces of steel from the infected old razor blade on a silk yarn, silk or wires not twisted (because it would cause hanging objects spinning around). After a wobble wobble, pieces of steel will stabilize and give us direction South. (If it’s windy, you can drop pieces of steel into a bottle, cup or shield any).

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