★ ACCIDENTS AT SEA
On your voyage, whether large or small vessels, can also occur as the unexpected accident: two boats crashed into each other, touching the rocks, hitting the ice (like the Titanic case), encountered a storm, the ship machine breakdowns … If entered a combat zone, it may be sunk, torpedoes hit … And consequences can lead to the ship being capsized.
When incidents occur for whatever reason, then:
– Immediately signals (by whatever means anything) needs emergency with international phone code SOS.
– Trying to slow the speed of ships sunk by closing the door to the sea, the air vents and exhaust … Leveraging the full capacity of the water pump. To extend the timeout rescue.
– If the boat is large, relatively slow time sink. You need to notify all passengers carry lifebuoys prepared to leave the ship. Lower lifeboat down. Priority for children, women and the elderly. Do not panic.
– If the boat is not damaged, try running toward land or the nearest islands, as close as possible.
★ jumped into the water
If the cold season (or are in cold waters), before jumping into the water, wear a lot of clothes (if any waterproof clothing as possible), a cap and socks and had to be brought buoys born.
When jumping into the water, the vertical jump, feet first, legs closed, eyes forward, hands arms around his chest, pressing on lifeline. Do not jump head first down as the pool. Nose to prevent choking water.
If possible, you should choose the direction the wind is blowing wind to avoid bumping into the ship.
If the big ship, after the water, it should leave immediately broadside. Since the wreck, will form a very strong eddy currents, smoking with all nearby objects.
Once in the water, people should gather together to be able to lean on each other, help and encourage each other … And especially the rescue team will be easy to see and easy to help you. Divide each piece of wood or floating objects floating on the water to increase their buoyancy.
★ USE lifesaver
When an accident at sea, need to jump into the water to escape whether you are a prince swimmers, also need to carry lifebuoys to maintain their strength and prolonged survival time in the water.
Lifebuoys have many different kinds of styles: oral blower type, pneumatic type used (just yank scuba key is self-inflated float), has a type of material that itself it has a certain buoyancy.
When encountering dangerous situations, immediately notify people on board know to carry lifebuoys. Take the high buoyancy floats with children, women and the elderly. Help them carry floats, tie, button, tuck lock, preliminary instructions … These people know how to swim should use floats supported, although low buoyancy, but ease of operation while swimming.
Without lifesaver, who swim up to find or fabricate for themselves the lifeline by finding empty containers, empty can or plastic bag and foam material, lightweight, have high buoyancy … cords tied together. It can blow many small nylon bag, put into the legs and grabs the column. When using this kind of float, not jump into the water because of strong impact force will break airbags, float will take effect.
(Please refer to the section “MAKING FRIENDS SIMPLE)
★ USE & life rafts Boat
Upon the occurrence of accidents at sea, boats or life rafts is the best means for us to escape. However, to be safe and effective, you need to know some things:
– If the lifeboat is made of wood or fiberglass, when used, must be released slowly into the sea. If the crane should drop by for a little child or a woman sitting on the weak and drivers for canoe down slowly (these people are not able to jump straight into the sea).
– If boats or life rafts are made of rubber blower (typically compressed air) may be thrown into the sea. But before you throw, it should have a long rope to the boat slip friend precautions when thrown into the water, because the wind slightly easier to lapse.
– The captain or the assistant, sailor … should prepare for each lifeboat or life rafts some food, water and livelihood tools such as weapons, flashlights, fire cannons, reflective glass, panel color , knives, paddles, emergency medicine, … and a long string column after canoe or life rafts, to miss someone falls into the water, they can cling to it so that we pull up.
– After lowering boats or life rafts into the water, should nominate two people healthy, good swimming, a friend and a man climb circling friend to help others climb.
– If the number of people more than the load of boats or life rafts good swimmers should wear a life vest and swim under the boat, if tired, the light stick on broadsides.
– Once on the boat, strictly adhere to the instructions of the crew, where they sat there, not crowded, run up and down, leaned out alongside the boat …
– If earlier, the ship was able to signal for help, the rescue team will come and they will prioritize regional scours first accident, so after taking the boat, you should not go too paddling flutter away but should drop around the accident area, unless you know the direction to the mainland or islands or see the lights (for night).
– Appointment of alternate water slaps in the lifeboat out.
– Staff for not always observed on the sea and, if sight of airplanes or boats, set off a distress signal. If the weather is good, the mirror or a piece of polished metal is most effective (see section CONTACT PHI), without the use of smoke, smoke color, light-colored fabric … attracting attention them. Night may use fire or artillery fire glow.
– The most important thing is to know solidarity, encouragement, consolation and help mutual interest. If so, then you can overcome any hardship to survive together.
If you can navigate and see the shore and have the ability or circumstance forced to swim to shore, you go:
– Try to find a buoy or floating objects to cling to.
– Take advantage of the wind direction and ocean currents.
– Use a gentle breaststroke method comfortable to save energy.
If ordinary waves encounter.
– Swim behind the waves.
– When the waves break, if necessary, to pass dive.
If you encounter big waves.
– Swimming in between two waves.
– Trying to swim close to the waves.
– If the waves from fast to the sea near (behind you), hold your breath waiting last dive from the outcrop between two waves and swim again. Otherwise, when the waves lapping at the back of you, will make you somersault.
To conserve energy while swimming, you have to know a relaxing rest by floating. Everyone of us can float, even those who can not swim, because it does not require health and exercise more.
In calm waters, you can drop back gently to rest, helping you to regain strength and energy savings. But if in the ocean currents or big waves in the sea, you can not drop back which can only indexed to tread softly so.
You need to float the boat capsized in the dark, unable to orient to swim to shore or float you to rest resuscitation after a long swim. Float also help you conserve energy in order to stay long in the water while waiting for people to save or improve the situation.
It is easier to float if you have a float or equipment, material well … Otherwise, you can use your trousers to advance a float (as illustrated) to breather.
The longer you can stay in the country if not below 70oF water temperature, which is equivalent to 21,5oC, but if the temperature is below 68oF (20oC #) will lead to hypothermia very dangerous if the body does not get guard. If you have clothes, the symptoms will appear after 8 hours in the water, without clothes, only after 4 hours. If the temperature at 57oF (15oC #), the duration should not exceed 2 hours.
When you are in cold water, keep your head surfaced, trying to protect the neck, chest, armpits, groin (the body parts prone to cold penetration) by thick clothing. If alone, the knees up, folded his arms across his chest and estate body to retain body heat. If there are 2-3 people, please hug to help cool (of course you need a buoy or floating equipment do).
★ EXIST IN FRIENDS
Possibly due to shipwreck, accidental, caused by aircraft to an emergency landing into the sea or for a reason that you’re being adrift with a raft, then would you please follow the instructions after this:
– Fasten the widgets that you are on the raft, to avoid making waves or flip fallen friend.
– Keep dry clothes, socks and gloves, covering all body areas exposed to the sun, if possible, because of the heat of the sun can burn your skin bulging.
– Dry clothes is also essential to help us against the cold, especially at night.
– Take advantage of the shade sail or other materials to cover the sun, trying to minimize exposure to the sun, because it is easy to make your body lose water.
– Inventory all food and drinking water, stored somewhere safe and cool, dietary restriction in the first 24 hours.
– Can you at sea for several days, so the need to conserve energy, avoid these activities the sweat and energy consumption.
– Prepare some items to make signs for aircraft or ships (as mentioned previously).
★ MOVEMENT WITH FRIENDS (OR lifeboat)
When moved by friend, you must choose one of two methods to move: Either the downwind, or the angle to the ocean currents.
The wind and sea currents rarely move in the same direction, usually a convenient and is the opposite. You should have some knowledge of winds and ocean circulation, know where (relatively) their direction they need to go, said the wind or ocean will bring her anywhere.
Applying the ocean currents
A sailing raft not forced to be dominated by the ocean currents, so you must know how to manipulate it so that it helps you in the voyage.
To use ocean currents, people usually use a thick cloth bag called “sail-dandruff” or “neo-dandruff” (sea anchor) to drop into the water, the water flow will cause dandruff unwind and push it away accompanied by a raft. When water flows strong, pulling away too fast friends, people deflate “sail dandruff” again. When water flows slow or weak as estate friends, people expand “sail dandruff” out.
Without “sad dandruff”, you can also manipulate the currents by making friends flooded part of the country (such as steam blow off if the rubber raft), the column some things for submersion to withstand the effects of ocean currents more. If lucky, the flow will take you through the navigation of the ship or bring you into the land.
The ocean currents:
As the water exchange between the sea and the sea, forming the circulation flow like rivers in the sea. The ocean currents change according to season and from different waters. Below is a diagram of the currents in the sea.
Although wind is a companion of the ancient mariner, but if we do not grasp the rules of the wind instead of bringing us to the mainland, the wind may take us farther.
South China Sea is full of our country in Southeast Asia monsoon with two main types of wind: northeast monsoon and southwest monsoon.
About intensity, two types of this wind changed a lot in the transition months (April, May and September, October) unstable wind direction.
Active northeast monsoon lasts from October to April next year.
Southwest monsoon lasts from May to October and by the ocean comes up in this period of rain.
To apply maximum winds:
– Do not use the “sail dandruff”
– Blow true friend Puff (if the rubber raft) makes high raft floating as light as possible.
– “Passenger” sit very high on the raft, so the body can catch the maximum wind.
– Erect sail (or other materials used to catch the wind like sails). This is also the material used as signs for other vessels easily seen.
In case you’re in a quandary, friends can not rely on the wind or ocean currents to move, try to preserve and limited food rations and drinking water to sustain life as long possible.
★ caught on FRIENDS
During exist on friends, whether you have or do not have food, you also need to know some fishing methods to get more fresh food and supplement their food sources as much as possible .
If you only hooks but no bait, you can post one or multiple hooks at different depths, gently pull back to below the raft. Fishes curiosity or to stay under can swim raft hit a hook and stick (this is often the case when we go fishing, sometimes there are people stuck at the hips). When caught the first fish, you eviscerate ingratiate gut hook to hook as bait.
Tools and other fishing methods:
No hooks, you can use a knife, sticks, oars, pointing, noose … even your bare hands; to slash, stab, knock, strangle, shoot … the fish or marine organisms near the surface loitering around friends.
You can catch sea birds by bait (preferably small fish) into a hook (or something fabricated as hooks) set on a floating object, connecting it to the raft plankton, sea birds knead to bite the bait will be sticky question. (See FABRICATION hook).
If there is a mild and slightly larger zooplankton, (planks, empty containers …) and you drag the column friend about 5-10 meters, which to a stranglehold on connecting with friends. The sea birds are often very bold, find accommodation would be landing legs, you just snatched slipknot to grab.
You can also lay motionless dead. These voracious birds will alight near real idea you, when both fingertips when suddenly grabs. Note the claws, wings, its beak can cause injury to you. (This is the experience of a Hainan fishermen floating on the raft almost three months after the shipwreck) (See also HUNTING fishing).
Algae: As an additional source of vitamins are essential for our bodies. In the sea there are many types of algae, most of which are edible. However, you also need to know how to differentiate and processing. (See the algae).
★ COLORS OF THE SEA
When moving at sea, we also need to know some of the problems and phenomena related to our survival, in which the color of sea water also tells us important information. Seawater typically have two main colors: Green, and Blue.
Green: When the number of microorganisms and animals more, low salinity.
Green: When the organisms and microorganisms less, high salinity.
Shades of sea water (Green and Blue) will depend on:
– Sunlight and depth of the sea (deeper the dark).
– Differences in salinity and the amount of the flow organisms (eg Gulf Stream and Labrador in the North Atlantic) also changes the color of the sea.
– The areas with coral reefs usually yellowish.
– The color of the sea is not exactly in bad weather conditions or murky.
★ estimating the distance
At sea, the target distance is often disturbed by countless steam and water droplets forming dew or fog snow … so when estimating distance at sea, often dishonest.
Multiple targets you look it seems closer than reality due to:
– Light the sun behind you.
– When you look across the water (light, refracted).
– The air is so pure.
Sometimes you see goal seems far more practical because:
– Lack of light or due to fog.
– Regularly look long through big waves, especially when waves frontal (perpendicular) to the observer.
In case the weather is good, with the naked eye, you can see the images in the table below to estimate distance:
– Distance 50 meters: apparent, eyes, nose and mouth of a person.
– Approximately 100 meters: Two eyes only 2 spots.
– Distance 200 meters: There may see surface.
– Approximately 500 meters: Also see color clothing, flags Sémaphore and read table name of the ship average.
– Distance 800 meters: People like a little stick. And to read the names of the big ship.
– Distance 1500 meters: Also see the complete ship.
– Distance 3000 – 4000 meters: Also see the upper part of the ship
– Distance 11-15 km: Only see chimneys or masts.
★ ESTIMATION latitudinal ABOUT US
When floating on the waters in the Northern Hemisphere, you can see the North Star to estimate we’re at Latitude (North) does. Want to be like that, you get points zenith and the horizon constitute two sides of the right angle, intersecting at ourselves. I grab the horizon is 0 o and meditation point is 90 degrees, if the North Star lies in how many degrees in a right angle, then we’re in it right there on the ground Latitude (sea).
In the illustration, we see the North Star is at 45 degrees (between meditation and the horizon). Thus, we are at 45 degrees North Latitude.
Whether you do not have “hex glasses”, you also can use the above method to estimate fairly accurately distance by calculating the difference of the North Star after moving ramp. Every deviation is equivalent to 60 miles (miles) or 90 km above the ground (sea).
★ SEARCH FOR ISLANDS WITH CLOUD
The clouds estate will make us pay attention because it standing still while clouds still moving around.
Clouds often appear side estate on the island (or hills on the island) is due to the winds carry water vapor constantly blowing on the island, while touching the block of land in the island rises, cold air met it condenses into clouds (clouds estate is provided by continuous steam). The island is located below the horizon, it is difficult to see.
Once past the island, wind down and warm up the clouds can not form another.
★ SEARCH BY BIRD LAND
The ancient mariner sailing them without a map and navigation table, they just rely on the experience, judgment and some tips. To find the direction of the land, they carry a number of birds living in the continent. When needed, they released birds to see if the mainland, birds will fly straight toward it, if not, the birds will return to the boat.
★ estimated DISTANCE BY LAND SEA BIRD
★ baby VISITORS TO COAST
To docked safely when friends were approaching the shore, you go:
– Try to find a secret place, onshore wind (or islands) for landing.
– Do not hit the opposite direction of the sun, light and reflections from the sea will make you dazzled, unseen targets, vulnerable to shock.
– Choose where little swell (little white foam) will help you access to the coast easier and less energy consumption.
– If you have to cross the tidal wave, just lowering the mast, tied together with tools, clothes, wear shoes, to limit the impact caused by scratching or rubbing may occur.
– Use a paddle or pole, sticks … to test the depth, coral, reef …
– Pull “dandruff sail” up, especially when crossing the reef or at the near shore.
– Avoid areas with strong surf on the cliffs or rocks.
– When preparing raft ashore, you look straight ahead, sit for very strong to be able to withstand the blows when friends come ashore.
– When the raft landed, you get off, shifting under the waves to pull the raft to shore.
★ HOW ONE OVER AGAIN BE FRIENDS RUBBER UP
When a rubber raft capsized, if not know the way, you will be alone and struggling hard to turn back because it was not so. Be the first column a rope at one side and then headed friend remaining wire to the other pool. Chronic climb upright on it, leaned back straight pull rope. When your friend will revisit fell into the water, beware friend hit people.